Variable & Function Declarations vs Expressions

Variable Declarations

You can declare a variable with the var keyword followed by a variable name of your choosing.

var aVariable; // A Variable Declaration

Variable Expressions

You can assign some data to the variable with equals sign= , the code right of the = is called the Variable Expression Assignment.

var aVariable = 'a string';    // A String Expression Assignment
var aNumber = 123;             // A Number Expression Assignment
var anObject = {key:'value'};    // An Object Expression Assignment
var anObject = [12,3,'a string'];    // An Array Expression Assignment

Function Declarations

Just as you declare a variable with var you can declare a function with function. Declared functions must be named they cannot be anonymous.

// Named Function 
function fnDeclaration (){ 
    return 'I am a Function Declaration';
};

Function Expressions

A function that is part of a larger syntax construct is called a function expression, typically you achieve this by assigning the function to a variable or an objects key/value pair.

// Anonymous function expression
var fnExpression = function(){ 
    return 'I am an Anonymous Function Expression';
};

// Anonymous function expression assigned to a key/value pair.
var obj = {};
obj.fnExpression = function(){ 
    return 'I am a different Anonymous Function Expression';
};

// Named function expression (Beginners should avoid this last one)
var foo = function fnExpressionToo (){ 
    return 'I am a Named Function Expression';
};

Differences between Function Declarations and Expressions

Named and Anonymous Functions

Only function expressions can be anonymous, that is, written without a name after the function keyword. In the examples above anonymous functions are accessed by their variable assignment.

Hoisting

Function declarations are hoisted so invoking a function declaration before it is defined works just fine. You will rarely want to invoke a function before it was defined and if you write well structured code you may be forgiven for not even noticing the hoisting behaviour of JavaScript.

Hoisting is a topic all of its own and past the scope of this article, but you can read all about it in Variable & Function Hoisting.

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